Research & Validation

While the power of Ayurvedic wisdom is widely accepted, objective evidence of Ayurvedic principles is crucial for the scientific recognition. Team Atreya believes that research with Nadi Tarangini is an important step in this direction.

In India, only few research studies at technical institutes get actually converted into useful technologies and furthermore very few of them are converted into products. We are proud to present Nadi Tarangini as the product based on the Ph.D. research of the founder Dr. Aniruddha Joshi at IIT Bombay (guide Dr. Sharat Chandran). The research then continued at NCL Pune (guide Dr. B. D. Kulkarni) and now at Atreya Pune office, and most importantly by many doctors using Nadi Tarangini at their clinics.

We follow the following artificial intelligence method flow in the research studies:

  • Generate database and understand the data: We do protocol based data collection – Nadi signals, medical information, etc. The data is visualized for observing the correctness.
  • Data analysis: The data is analyzed for visible and hidden patterns. The visible patterns are P-T-V-D and their different values. Sometimes T wave is missing, sometimes D is missing, sometimes there are two D waves and so on. The hidden patterns are the frequency components in the pulse signals.
  • Knowledge discovery: The team of vaidya, doctors, and researchers study together to find out the correlations between the Nadi patterns, personal information of the subject, medical information of the subject and outputs of
    • Visual parameters (Graphs, Charts)
    • Ayurvedic parameters (Tikshnata, Guruta, Vikruti etc.)
    • Medical parameters (Rate, Rhythm, etc.)
    • Wellness parameters (Proneness to stress, Emotions, etc.)
    • Lifestyle suggestions
  • Feedback loop: There is a feedback loop from every block to every block in the process. Depending upon the data, patterns, and results; the process is repeated multiple times to optimize the results.
Understand that the artificial intelligence based approach is a data-driven approach, in which more data means higher possibility of optimal results. In Nadi Tarangini, all the data is stored at one centralized server location where the trends emerge out. The Google Maps path, online computerized chess, and autopilot in the flight are few examples of such approach. It is important for Ayurveda to go in this data-driven approach also, beyond just rules-based approach (Charak, Ravankrut Nadi, Vagbhat etc.) for the faster global reach.

Nadi Tarangini Research Papers

We have collaborated with esteemed doctors/ clinics/ institutions to provide objective evidence in research through Nadi Tarangini. We provide selected papers (out of more than 25) here for your reference:

Patent: A device for the detection and reliable capturing of the pulse characteristics (link)
Abstract: The invention is related to a device to sense the pulse on a wrist of a subject and to arrive at the health status of the said subject by capturing the pulse in real time; analyzing the pulse based on time-frequency properties of the pulse signal and Vata, Pitta and Kaphahumors of the subject. The device reliably detects and captures noise free pulse characteristics of a subject at the appropriate locations of the subject’s wrist with a minimal positional error in a user-friendly way with minimal reliance on the expertise of the person measuring the pulses. The device facilitates the analysis of the pulses and provides a comprehensive diagnostic system based on the pulse characteristics, visual features, responses of a subject to structured queries to arrive at the tridosha levels in a subject.

Paper: Nadi Tarangini: A pulse-based diagnostic system : IEEE EMBC 2007 (link)
Abstract: In this paper, we provide details of our procedure for obtaining the complete spectrum of the Nadi pulses as a time series. The system Nadi Tarangini1 contains a diaphragm element equipped with a strain gauge, a transmitter cum amplifier, and a digitizer for quantifying analog signal. The system acquires the data with 16-bit accuracy with practically no external electronic or interfering noise. The pulse waveform is also shown to have the desirable variations with respect to age of patients, and the pressure applied to the sensing element. The system is being evaluated by Ayurvedic practitioners as a computer-aided diagnostic tool.

Paper: Arterial pulse system: Modern methods for traditional Indian medicine: IEEE EMBC 2007 (link)
Abstract: Diagnosis similar to the traditional pulse-based method requires a system of clean input signals and extensive experiments for obtaining classification features. In this paper, we briefly describe our system of generating pulse waveforms and use various feature detecting methods to show that an arterial pulse contains typical physiological properties. The beat-to-beat variability is captured using a complex B-spline mother wavelet-based peak detection algorithm. We also capture–to our knowledge for the first time–the self-similarity in the physiological signal, and quantifiable chaotic behavior using recurrence plot structures.

Paper: Arterial pulse rate variability analysis for diagnoses: ICPR 2008 (link)
Abstract: Heart rate variability (HRV) provides an estimate of sympathetic and parasympathetic influences on the heart rate. The noninvasive, convenient, and inexpensive arterial pulse originate from heartbeats but has not been studied in a systematic fashion except in rudimentary ways. In this paper, we present pulse rate variability (PRV) as an alternative to HRV. We give evidence for the detection of disorders in patients using PRV, paving the way for future clinical use.

Paper: Multifractality in arterial pulse: ICPR 2008 (link)
Abstract: Extensive research has been done to show that heartbeats are composed of the interaction of many physiological components operating on different time scales, with nonlinear and self-regulating nature. The more direct, and easily accessible manifestation of the heartbeat is the pulse; however, it has not been studied anywhere near as extensively. In this paper, we establish the relevance of the multi-fractal formalism for the arterial pulse, which has long been used as a fundamental tool for diagnosis in the Traditional Indian Medicine, (Ayurveda). Finally, we investigate how these pulse dynamics change with age and disorder. The analytic tools we discuss may be used on a wide range of physiological signals.

Paper: Topological invariants of the arterial pulse: PAKDD-Workshop 2010 (link)
Abstract: Many important time series such as those originating from weather patterns, stock market trends, and biomedical signals contain a quasi-periodic nature where the nature of shrinking and stretching is an indication of the information content. Topological invariants with its basis in non-linear dynamics and chaos theory can be considered as a concise indicator of the measure of these changes. In this work, the time series obtained from the arterial pulse signal is analyzed using measures such as linking numbers, and relative rotation rates.

Paper: A novel PSWT-DTW approach for analyzing pseudo-periodic signals: IEEE PHT 2013 (link)
Abstract: Pseudo-periodic signals are rampant in biomedical applications but are difficult to analyze. One approach is to compute time domain parameters of each individual cycle in the pseudo-periodic signal. We provide a novel combination of the pitch synchronous wavelet transform which when combined with dynamic time warping results in the effective quantification of cycles in the pseudo-periodic signal. We demonstrate our application of this method in studying the arterial pulse.

Paper: Assessing the effect of Aahariya Dravya on Nadi with respect to Prakruti and Rasa using instrumentation and visualization based techniques: WAC 2016
Abstract: Ayurvediya grantha quotes the correlations between Aahariya dravya, Prakruti, Rasa and their effects on the Nadi. This study was to understand the effects of rasa on Nadi through instrumentation and its verification through the shlokas. Instead of subjective Nadi Parikshan methodology, through this instrumentation and visualization based simple experiment, we showed that it is easy to understand and learn the underlined meanings of granthokta shloka for Nadi.

Paper: A Proposed Framework for Prediction of Pulse, based on the effect of Surya Namaskar on different Prakruti at different Prahars of the Day : IEEE ICBDAC 2017 (link)
Abstract: Wrist Pulse signals contain some crucial information about the health of a person. The paper proposes a framework to predict the Pulse after performing Surya Namaskar for people of different Prakruti at different Prahars (Morning, Afternoon or Evening). The variations occurring in the Pulse signals shall be determined by processing the signals and these changes will be used as knowledge for our Machine Learning algorithm. This will be further used to predict the Pulse after performing Surya Namaskar and determining its effect on our daily life cycle.

Paper: Significance of arterial stiffness in Tridosha analysis: A pilot study : JAIM 2017 (link)
Abstract: Arterial stiffness is well established pulse parameter in modern medicine and is closely associated to kathinya in the context of Ayurveda. The aim of our study was to measure arterial stiffness using Nadi Tarangini, a pulse acquisition system, and investigate the significant variations of stiffness across Tridosha locations. A total of 42 samples of vata, pitta and kapha pulses with proper systolic and diastolic peaks were included in the study. The arterial stiffness parameters namely stiffness index (SI) and reflection index (RI) were considered for the study. The data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tamhane’s T2 test. The changes in SI and RI between males and females were assessed using independent samples t test.